Black Parade (Library of Wales)
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Many of the timber-framed buildings in York have been restored and converted to restaurants, shops, or boutiques. Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free. Agency Copyright Notice. Ruins of St. Mary's Abbey in the garden adjoining the Yorkshire Museum in York. The former Benedictine abbey was the richest in northern England; it was destroyed on orders of Henry VIII during the "Dissolution of the Monasteries" in the 16th century.
Promenade along the River Ouse in York. Lendal Bridge appears in the background. The Merchant Adventurers' Hall was one of the most important buildings in medieval York. The majority of the structure was built in ; its Great Hall was where merchants gathered to conduct business and socialize, while its Undercroft served as a hospital and almshouse for the poor. The Merchant Adventurers today no longer conduct mercantile activities but are a charitable group.
The Hall is the largest timber-framed building in the UK still standing and used for its original purpose. The ruined keep of the medieval Norman castle in York is referred to as Clifford's Tower. Much of York's ancient walls still survive; they are punctuated by four main gatehouses referred to as "bars".
Bootham Bar has some of the oldest surviving stonework - dating to the 11th century A. It was built almost exactly on the site of the northwestern gate of Eboracum, the Roman settlement that evolved into York. This view, taken from Exhibition Square, shows York Minster, the city's famous cathedral, in the background. Substantial portions of York's city walls have been preserved. Although the Romans first constructed walls around the city which they called Eboracum , most of the current walls date to medieval 12thth century times. Layers showing the build up of York's defenses through the ages.
A view of the towers on the western front of York Minster. Construction on this Gothic cathedral, one of the largest in northern Europe, began in ; it was not completed until Peter in York. Time, weather, and pollution have all taken their toll on the carvings decorating the exterior of York Minster. Sections of the cathedral continue to undergo restoration. Replacement stonework is fashioned in a special stoneyard next to the cathedral.
Some of York Minster's decorative roof finials show severe weathering, as well as areas where restoration has taken place. A view across some of the York Minster roofs. A close up of one of the York Minster entrances highlighting some of the replacement carvings installed as part of the restoration effort.
A portion of the choir screen in York Minster shows carvings of many of England's early kings. This is near the spot where Constantine was proclaimed Augustus i. Following a six-year civil war, Constantine became sole emperor and allowed religious freedom throughout the empire. His Edict proved a turning point for the spread of the Christian Church.
William's College, adjacent to York Minster, serves as a convention and meeting center for the cathedral. The Theatre Royal in York dates dates back to ; it sits on the site of the medieval St. Leonard's Hospital. Parts of the old hospital can still be seen in the archways and walls.
Under the stage is a well that is believed to date back to the Roman era in York's history. The Shambles, formerly an open-air meat market in York, is now a popular tourist destination lined with picturesque shops. Wildflowers growing atop a wall in York. Street scene in Portsmouth, England.
Completed in , she was the first armor-plated, iron-hulled warship built for the British Royal Navy. In its day, Warrior was the largest, fastest, most heavily armed and armored warship in the world. She was powered by sail or steam-driven propeller, or both. The city's iconic Spinnaker Tower, opened in , appears at the left. The tower's height is m ft ; it has three viewing decks at , , and meter levels.
Trackways for one of the swivel guns on HMS Warrior. She is the world's oldest naval ship still in commission and carries guns. The ship in drydock is the M33, a World War I monitor gunboat dating to The Mary Rose was a 16th-century warship that sank abruptly in during an engagement with the French. She was salvaged in along with thousands of artifacts and today serves as the centerpiece of an eponymous nautical museum and maritime archeological center. The surprisingly spacious dining quarters aboard HMS Victory were reserved for the officers. Dust from North Africa mingled with other aerosols in the skies over the United Kingdom left of center and Ireland farther west on 18 April In this scene, the dust is more prominent to the north over the Atlantic, where it can be seen as a tan swirl west of Norway.
West of Ireland, the haze is grayer, and is more likely pollution. In the United Kingdom, a few bright plumes of white could be associated with fires. Photo courtesy of NASA. This satellite photo shows Northwest Europe. Visible are the Republic of Ireland top leftmost , the United Kingdom top left , France middle left , Belgium middle , the Netherlands top middle , Germany right , Denmark top right , Luxembourg between France, Germany, and Belgium , Switzerland bottom middle , Italy bottom middle , and Austria bottom right ; the latter three all cloud covered.
The city of Paris is the gray area in northern France. Image courtesy of NASA. Blenheim Palace in Oxforshire, built between and , is one of the largest houses in England. A walk through the Secret Garden on the grounds of Blenheim Palace. A hidden pool in the Secret Garden at Blenheim Palace. A variety of low-growing plants highlight a rock garden in the Secret Garden at Blenheim Palace.
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Pink rhododendrons in the Secret Garden on the grounds of Blenheim Palace. One of the belvederes gracing the west end of Blenheim Palace as seen through some of the trees on the grounds of the estate. Wisteria-bedecked cottage in the town of Burford, the Cotswold hills district, England. Shops in the town of Burford, the Cotswolds district, England. Relaxing outside a restaurant in the town of Burford, the Cotswold hills district, England.
Closely packed houses in the town of Burford, the Cotswold hills district, England. A sunny afternoon in Bournton-on-the-Water, Cotswolds district, England. An inviting cottage in the town of Bournton-on-the-Water, Cotswolds district, England. Typical Cotswolds hills cottage and dry stone walls. A sturdy Cotswolds house built of locally quarried, distinctive honey-colored limestone. A walkway at a height of 9 m 30 ft in the 19 m- 62 ft- high nave allows visitors to look down upon the crowns of the palms.
Officially opened in , it has become an iconic symbol of the city. Tower Bridge in London received its name from the nearby Tower of London. View from out the back of one of London's famous double-decker buses crossing Tower Bridge. Passing under Tower Bridge as seen through the observation window of a cruise ship.
The nickname Big Ben is today frequently applied to the tower, the clock, and the bell, but originally it applied solely to the largest bell inside the tower. The clock holds the distinction of being the world's largest four-faced chiming clock.
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The clock is recognized as the world's largest four-faced chiming clock. Big Ben as seen through the gates of the Palace of Westminster, London. Boudica led a fearsome - but ultimately unsuccessful - Celtic revolt against the Romans in A. A view of London at dusk. The Eye carries 32 sealed and air-conditioned egg-shaped passenger capsules, each of which can hold 25 persons. A capsule from the London Eye, the city's famous observation wheel. The London Eye at dusk. Looking up at the dome of St. Paul's Cathedral in London.
This Anglican place of worship rests on Ludgate Hill, the highest point in the city. The present building - designed by Sir Christopher Wren - dates to the 17th century and is generally considered to be the fifth St. Paul's erected on the site. A vista of London from the Golden Gallery, the highest point of the outer dome of St. Some 85 m ft above the city, this view requires a climb of steps.
The large structure on the right is the cathedral's west end clock tower. A look down into Paternoster Square from the dome of St. The area is the location of the London Stock Exchange, as well as various investment banks. View through a circular cut opening glass covered down onto the crossing under the dome of St.
A view of the Albert Memorial as seen from Kensington Gore. It was commissioned by Queen Victoria in memory of her beloved husband, Prince Albert. Built over a period of 10 years, it opened in Opened in , it is renowned for its highly distinctive Byzantine architecture. Butler's Wharf along the River Thames, London. The Hungerford Bridge that leads to the station is flanked by two cable-stayed pedestrian bridges that share the railroad bridge's foundation piers and which are officially named the Golden Jubilee Bridges.
Whitehall Court as seen from the River Thames, London. Although one contiguous building, it consists of two separate constructions. The left portion of the building is The Royal Horseguards hotel, while the remainder is residential. The 11 m 36 ft -high blown glass chandelier by Dale Chihuly in the rotunda at the main entrance to the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.
The courtyard of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The acquisition by museums of plaster casts of important monuments and works of art was especially popular in the mid-to-late 19th century, since few people could afford to travel to the Continent to view the originals. A storage area for casts at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The Royal Exchange in London. This - the third exchange building on the site - dates to The Royal Exchange no longer acts as a center of commerce, but is now a luxurious shopping center.
The impressive facades along Queen's Gate Terrace in London. An element from The Blues and Royals, in their distinctive blue rain capes, passing along a damp London street. The Blues and Royals are part of the Household Cavalry Regiment performing ceremonial duties on state and royal occasions as well as an armored reconnaissance unit taking part in active military operations around the world.
Horns, trumpets, bells - London, England. Shown are the original house and the wings linked by colonnades One of the buildings making up the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. Beneath the Pavilion and to the foreground is the Foyle Reading Room and the RGS library, which are covered by a sunken lawn, but which receive illumination through the bush-shaded skylights. This intriguing "globular cluster of stars" is actually the "constellation" of city lights surrounding London as recorded February from the International Space Station. The encircling "London Orbital" highway by-pass, the M25, is easiest to pick out south of the city.
Even farther south are the lights of Gatwick airport and just inside the western left hand stretch of the Orbital is Heathrow. Swaledale, a valley in Yorkshire, northern England. Much of the exterior of Eastwell Manor in Ashford, Kent, is draped with ivy. Anne Hathaway's Cottage, near Stratford-on-Avon, England, is a spacious room house where Anne - Shakespeare's wife - was brought up.
Windsor Castle in Berkshire County is the largest inhabited castle in the world; dating to the 11th century, it is one of the principal official residences of the British monarch. In , a fire destroyed part of the castle; restoration required five years. The castle is one of Britain's most popular attractions, but not all areas are open to the public. Gardens and pond at Windsor Castle in Berkshire, England. It has the tallest church spire in the UK, which required serious buttressing and contains no bell. The cathedral holds the oldest working clock in the world built and one of the original surviving copies of the Magna Carta.
Laburnum trees in bloom around Chester Cathedral, England. The cathedral dates back to and has a free standing bell tower added in the 20th century. The church has been altered many times as attested to by examples of Norman, Early English Gothic, and Perpendicular Gothic styles of architecture. There may have been a Christian basilica on the site during the Roman era. The Isles of Scilly, an archipelago of approximately islands, are located some 45 km 28 mi southwest of the westernmost point of England Land's End.
The islands are an erosional remnant of an ancient granite intrusion, and are notable because they have been inhabited for over 4, years. Only five of the islands are currently inhabited. Even today, it is possible to walk between certain islands during low tides.
The entrance to the new St. Michael's Coventry Cathedral, England. Tower, spire, and part of the outer wall of the old St. Built in the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the church was bombed and almost obliterated during the Blitz in Today it stands next to the new cathedral and serves as a place of reflection and reconciliation. William Shakespeare's birthplace, Stratford-on-Avon, England. Dry stone walls line a road in the Lake District in northwest England.
The lakes and mountains of this picturesque area were attracting tourists by the end of the 18th century and by the government formed the Lake District National Park to protect the area from becoming over developed. Its most famous inhabitant was the poet William Wordsworth. The church was founded in as Saint Augustine's Abbey, and rebuilt in in the Romanesque style; it was added on to again in the 19th century.
Founded in the 7th century, it was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries. Plaque affixed to Bath Abbey commemorating the site of the coronation of Edgar, the first king of all England, in A. Fan vaulting over the nave at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. The bridge is lined by shops on both sides. The bridge was modeled after the Ponte Vecchio in Florence, Italy.
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A topiary lion stands guard in Parade Garden in Bath, England. A street scene in Bath, Somerset county, England. Michael's Church in Bath, England. Hanging flower baskets in Bath, county Sommerset, England. A model of the baths and associated temple at Aquae Sulis showing the many buildings that made up the complex. A model of the baths and associated temple at Aquae Sulis viewed from the opposite side showing the many buildings that made up the complex.
Although the water from the hot spring is colorless, it acquires its distinctive green hue from algal growth caused by the heat of the water and from sunlight. The superstructure of the Roman baths at Aquae Sulis - everything from the base of the columns upward - was reconstructed during Victorian times. The King's Bath at Bath, England. This arched overflow was part of the impressive Roman engineering arrangements at Aquae Sulis that continue to keep hot water flowing through the bath complex today.
Carved blocks from the pediment of the Temple of Sulis Minerva the patron deity of the baths at Aquae Sulis. Foundational remains of some of the buildings at Aquae Sulis. The screen shows what the area looked like in Roman times. Flowers vying for attention in a window box outside the Roman Baths in Bath, England. A photo of the English countryside near Avebury, in the English county of Wiltshire.
The small town is the site of a Neolithic henge that is larger and older than Stonehenge, 32 km 20 mi to the south.
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Vaults of clouds climb above the fields by Overton Hill in Wiltshire, England. Numerous tumuli burial mounds dot the hill, which has been the focus of human activities for over 5, years. Stonehenge as seen from the north barrow, Wiltshire County, England. The stone circle was built about B.
Among its many suggested functions are that it may have served as: an astronomical observatory, a religious site, a domain of the dead, or a place of healing. The site has also been connected to Arthurian legend. Another view of the megaliths that compose Stonehenge. Uniquely, the church also serves as the chapel for Christ Church, the largest college at the University of Oxford.
The church held the distinction of being the smallest cathedral in England for hundreds of years, but in the 20th century a few smaller churches were raised to cathedral status. The house of worship exhibits both Norman and Perpendicular styles. Iron Bridge spans the Severn River near the town of Ironbridge, England; it was the first arch bridge made of cast iron.
Constructed in , the bridge opened in ; vehicular traffic was barred from it in A remaining section of Hadrian's Wall, England. The wall was a fortification built by the Romans to mark their northern frontier, to prevent raids by Pictish tribes, and to collect customs. Begun in A. Eventually 14 to 17 full size forts were added.
Celtic cross outside of St. Standing stone circles are found throughout the British Isles. A street scene in Edinburgh. Scotland's capital offers a harmonious blend of historic and modern architecture. This view of the west front shows the Tower and the Crown. The latter is believed to date from the 15th century. This window portrays nautical themes: Christ walking on water in the lower section and, in the upper section, Christ calming a tempest; it is one of the most dynamic artworks in the church exhibiting swirling shapes in the glass pieces, and a predominance of blues, greens, and purples in the color composition.
The elaborately carved marble pulpit inside Saint Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. A view of the entranceway to Edinburgh Castle. The doorway is flanked by bronze statues of two of Scotland's greatest heroes, Robert the Bruce on the left and William Wallace a. Braveheart on the right. They were added in on the th anniversary of Bruce's death. Saint Margaret's Chapel - built circa - is the oldest building in Edinburgh Castle and in all of Scotland's capital city. It was built by King David I as a private chapel for the royal family and dedicated to his mother, Margaret. One of two splendid fireplaces inside the Royal Palace in Edinburgh Castle.
The other fine fireplace inside the Royal Palace in Edinburgh Castle. A view of Edinburgh as seen from its castle. Looking out onto the city of Edinburgh from the walls of its castle. The oldest parts of the castle date to the 12th century. A view of Edinburgh from its castle. The entrance to the Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh, Scotland. The castle derives its name from the Celtic words "haly" and "ruid" Holy Cross , it is the official residence of the monarch of the UK in Scotland.
Llangollen, Wales, in the Dee Valley, is the site of the annual International Eisteddfod, a music festival in which singers and dancers from around the world participate. Begun in , it reached it current state in , but was never entirely completed. Inside Caernarfon Castle, Wales. The tradition of investing the heir to the throne of Britain with the title Prince of Wales was begun in when King Edward I invested Prince Edward with the title. Prince Charles was the last heir to be invested there in A view of City Square in Leeds. The Leeds Art Gallery, located next to Leeds Town Hall, houses primarily modern art, but also contains artwork of the 19th century and earlier.
Introduction :: United Kingdom. Background : This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends. Geography :: United Kingdom. Location : This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water. Western Europe, islands - including the northern one-sixth of the island of Ireland - between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea; northwest of France. Geographic coordinates : This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server GNS , maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names.
Map references : This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. Note that boundary representations on these maps are not necessarily authoritative. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. Area : This entry includes three subfields. Area - comparative : This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census.
Image Description. Land boundaries : This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries. When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used.
Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ. Coastline : This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area including islands and the sea. Maritime claims : This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS , which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS Part II ; this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying s.
Climate : This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year; in the Word entry only, it includes four subfields that describe climate extremes:ten driest places on earth average annual precipitation describes the annual average precipitation measured in both millimeters and inches for selected countries with climate extremes. Terrain : This entry contains a brief description of the topography. Elevation : This entry includes the mean elevation and elevation extremes, lowest point and highest point. Natural resources : This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance, such as rare earth elements REEs.
In general, products appear only if they make a significant contribution to the economy, or are likely to do so in the future. Land use : This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: agricultural land, forest, and other; agricultural land is further divided into arable land - land cultivated for crops like wheat, maize, and rice that are replanted after each harvest, permanent crops - land cultivated for crops like citrus, coffee, and rubber that are not replanted after each harvest, and includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, and permane.
Irrigated land : This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water. Population distribution : This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country. While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures. Natural hazards : This entry lists potential natural disasters.
For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes. Environment - current issues : This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions see acid rain.
Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxi. Environment - international agreements : This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
Geography - note : This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere. People and Society :: United Kingdom. Population : This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends.
The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. Note: Starting with the Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries mostly African have explicitly taken into account t. Nationality : This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective.
Ethnic groups : This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population. Languages : This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages. When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language.
For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language. Religions : This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population. The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below. Baha'i - Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali known as Baha'u'llah in Iran in , Baha'i faith emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God.
Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m. Age structure : This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group as follows: years children , years early working age , years prime working age , years mature working age , 65 years and over elderly. The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population.
This is the population pyramid for the United Kingdom. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.
For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab. Dependency ratios : Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population. They relate the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others. Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures.
As fertility leve. Median age : This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan.
See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high. Population growth rate : The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure e.
Parthian Books works in partnership with Il Caduceo literary agency in Genoa who represents their writers in translation. They have developed an impressive and diverse group of translation links throughout Europe and beyond, with their books having appeared in fifteen foreign-language editions including French, Italian, Spanish, Arabic, Turkish, Danish, Turkish, Portuguese and Russian. Parthian also provide internships for students, offering work experience for anyone interested in developing publishing skills.
Interns have a chance to take part in taster sessions in publishing software like indesign and quark and editorial assistant and marketing duties. To find out more about Parthian, their writers and also to buy their published works go onto their website www. You can also follow them on their twitter account parthianbooks. View all posts by Welsh Writers' Trust.
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